AI & Justice System

EU - General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), 2018
International Cybersecurity and Data Privacy Outlook and Review – 2019 (Gibson Dunn)
US - Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act - BIPA, 2008
US - California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), 2019​​
US - Algorithmic Accountability Act of 2019 (DRAFT)
US - Commercial Facial Recognition Privacy Act of 2019 (DRAFT)
US - Justice in Forensic Algorithms Act of 2019 (DRAFT)
US - Deepfake Report Act of 2019 (DRAFT)​​
US - California The Body Camera Accountability Act (AB 1215), 2019
US - Defending Each and Every Person from False Appearances by Keeping Exploitation Subject to Accountability Act of 2019 (DRAFT)
US - Identifying Outputs of Generative Adversarial Networks Act 2019 (DRAFT)
US - Washington State, HB 1655 (DRAFT), Establishing guidelines for government procurement and use of automated decision systems in order to protect consumers, improve transparency, and create more market predictability
US - Commonwealth of Massachusetts HB 2701 (DRAFT), An Act establishing a commission on automated decision-making, artificial intelligence, transparency, fairness, and individual rights
US - State of Illinois - House Bill 3415 (Draft) on using using predictive data analytics in determining creditworthiness or in making hiring decisions


ACLU:  Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter Provided Data Access for a Surveillance Product Marketed to Target Activists of Color

The Appeal:  Risk Assessment: Explained, 2019

AI Now Institute: Litigating Algorithms: Challenging Government Use of Algorithmic Decision Systems, (2018)

AI Now Institute: Litigating Algorithms 2019 US Report: New Challenges to Government Use of Algorithmic Decision Systems, (2019)

AI Now Institute: New York City Automated Decision System Task Force Comments Compilation, (2019)

American Bar Association:  Resolution urging courts and lawyers to address the emerging ethical and legal issues related to the usage of artificial intelligence (“AI”) in the practice of law, (August 2019)

​​​​AlgorithmWatch in cooperation with Bertelsmann Stiftung, supported by the Open Society Foundations:  Automating Society Taking Stock of Automated Decision-Making in the EU (January 2019)


Bryson, J.J., Diamantis, M.E. & Grant, T.D.: Of, for, and by the people: the legal lacuna of synthetic persons. Artif Intell Law 25, 273–291 (2017) doi:10.1007/s10506-017-9214-9

Chander, Anupam: Future-Proofing Law. UC Davis Law Review, (November 2017)

Citron, Danielle Keats, "Technological Due Process" (2009). Faculty Scholarship. 1012

Corbett-Davies, Sam; Pierson, Emma; Feller, Avi; Goel, Sharad; Huq,Aziz: Algorithmic decision making and the cost of fairness, (2017_

Deeks, Ashely: Judical Demand for Explainable AI, (2019)

Element AI & Nesta:  Data Trusts A new tool for data governance

Ensign, Danielle; A. Friedler, Sorelle; Neville, Scott; Scheidegger, Carlos; Venkatasubramanian, Suresh: Runaway Feedback Loops in Predictive Policing, (December 2017)

European Parliament:  European Parliament resolution with recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics, (16 February 2017)

European Commission: Report on Liability for Artificial Intelligence and other emerging technologies, (November 2019)

FAT* 2018 Translation Tutorial: Understanding the Context and Consequences of Pre-trial Detention (April 2018)

FAT* 2018 Translation Tutorial: 21 Definitions of Fairness and Their Politics (April 2018)

Finale Doshi-Velez, Mason Kortz, Ryan Budish, Chris Bavitz, Sam Gershman, David O’Brien, Kate Scott, Stuart Shieber, James Waldo, David Weinberger, Adrian Weller, Alexandra Wood: Accountability of AI Under the Law: The Role of Explanation (Working Draft)

Hamon, R., Junklewitz, H. and Sanchez Martin, J., Robustness and Explainability of Artificial Intelligence, EUR 30040 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, (2020)

​​House Committee on Oversight and Reform: “Facial Recognition Technology: Its Impact on our Civil Rights and Liberties”, (2019)

IBM Center for The Business of Government: Predictive Policing: Preventing Crime with Data and Analytics, (2013)

The Intercept:  Prisons Across the U.S. Are Quietly Building Databases of Incarcerated People’s Voice Prints, (2019)

International Association for AI and Law:  for more than 30 years, the ICAIL conference has been the foremost international conference addressing research in Artificial Intelligence and Law. It is organized biennially under the auspices of the International Association for Artificial Intelligence and Law (IAAIL), and in cooperation with the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)

Karen Hao and Jonathan Stray:  Can you make AI fairer than a judge? Play our courtroom algorithm game (October 2019)

Karppi, T.: “The Computer Said So”: On the Ethics, Effectiveness, and Cultural Techniques of Predictive Policing. Social Media + Society (2018)

The Law Society: Algorithms in the Criminal Justice System, (2019)

Levendowski, Amanda: How Copyright Law Can Fix Artificial Intelligence's Implicit Bias Problem (July 24, 2017). 93 Wash. L. Rev. 579 (2018).

Maranke Wieringa. What to account for when accounting for algorithms: A systematic literature review on algorithmic accountability. In Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAT* ’20), January 27–30, 2020, Barcelona, Spain. ACM, New York,

Mireille Hildebrandt, Bert‐Jaap Koops:The Challenges of Ambient Law and Legal Protection in the Profiling Era, (2010)

The New York Times: Speaking Black Dialect in Courtrooms Can Have Striking Consequences, (2019)

Pacific Standard:  Justice by the Numbers: Meet the Statistician Trying to Fix Bias in Criminal Justice Algorithms, (2019)

Propublica:  Machine Bias, (2016)

RAND:  Predictive Policing: The Role of Crime Forecasting in Law Enforcement Operations, (2013)

Richardson, Rashida and Schultz, Jason and Crawford, Kate: Dirty Data, Bad Predictions: How Civil Rights Violations Impact Police Data, Predictive Policing Systems, and Justice (February 13, 2019). New York University Law Review Online, Forthcoming

Rich, Michael, Machine Learning, Automated Suspicion Algorithms, and the Fourth Amendment. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Forthcoming; Elon University Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2015-03.

Rudin, Cynthia and Berk Ustun. “Optimized Scoring Systems: Toward Trust in Machine Learning for Healthcare and Criminal Justice.” Interfaces 48 (2018

Theodorou, A., Dignum, V. Towards ethical and socio-legal governance in AI. Nat Mach Intell 2, 10–12 (2020)

The Royal United Services Institute (RUSI): RUSI Report - Data Analytics and Algorithmic Bias in Policing, (16 September 2019)

The Royal United Services Institute (RUSI): Machine Learning Algorithms and Police Decision-Making: Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Challenges, (2018)

Solaiman, S M.: Legal personality of robots, corporations, idols and chimpanzees: a quest for legitimacy. Artificial Intelligence and Law. 10.1007/s10506-016-9192-3., (2016)

Skeem, Jennifer L. and Lowenkamp, Christopher: Risk, Race, & Recidivism: Predictive Bias and Disparate Impact (June 14, 2016)

Vox: How will AI change your life? AI Now Institute founders Kate Crawford and Meredith Whittaker explain, (2019)

World Economic Forum: Artificial Intelligence Collides with Patent Law, 2018

Lighthouse Career Consulting